More than one combination of conditions is sufficient for achieving the outcome. Analyses for the intermediate and parsimonious solutions were not conducted in our work, which was limited to the available data without considering any counterfactuals. For each year, different combinations show a satisfying overall consistency surrounding 0. For , three combinations of conditions lead to a high level of information content of total risks. Cementos Molins and Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas are companies with this configuration.
There are two combinations of conditions that produce a high level of content of total risks for Grupo Tavex, Tubos Reunidos, Acerinox and Lingotes especiales are companies that have this configuration. For , two combinations of conditions lead to a high level of content of total risks. Grupo Ezentis and Sotogrande are companies that have this configuration.
With regard to the analysis of necessity, BIG4 or II are two individual conditions that would be necessary to obtain the outcome. As shown in Table 1 , the configurations leading to the outcome high information content of risk for one of the years of the recent economic crisis are quite different from the configurations for pre-crisis year and overcoming-crisis year. The third combination of conditions for and is identical, and the second is very similar.
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Likewise, the number of required conditions for is generally lower compared to and It is particularly noteworthy that BDACT is not present in any of the configurations, which could be attributed to a low activity of BoD. On the other hand, II and BIG4 are two conditions included in all of the sufficiency combinations we found, regardless of the year. OD is not present in any of them, meaning an ownership dispersion with more than 5 different significant shareholders.
In addition, Dusa and Alrik point out that seemingly paradoxical relations can appear in fsQCA in the sense that an important amount of cases can confirm a situation in which a condition is considered sufficient both for an outcome and for its negation. Therefore, in Table 3 , as a robustness test, minimization was conducted for the negation of the outcome high information content for the three years.
None of the combinations we found in the three years show a consistency score for outcome negation that was high enough to confirm a paradoxical relationship. Table 4 shows that the consistency scores for the negation of the identified combination of conditions for the three years are low enough to confirm this contradiction. Finally, we performed additional robustness tests not reported regarding the analysis of a the negation of the necessary conditions for the outcome and b the necessary conditions for the negation of the outcome.
In sum, results show that the outcome high information content of risks may result from several different combinations of conditions and, in this respect, there are certain differences between , and The confirmation of Propositions 1, 3 and 4 dealing with the influence of conditions and, in this respect, there are certain differences between , and The confirmation of Propositions 1 to 3 dealing with the influence of conditions on the outcome reveal, to a greater or lesser extent, that BoD characteristics independence, size, activity, duality, and gender diversity , independence of Audit Committee, ownership structure, and auditors quality are associated with high risk disclosure in the CGAR.
Additionally, companies that shared a configuration tend to belong to the same sector. This paper contributes to the existing literature that links CG mechanisms and financial reporting quality by examining the conditions under which the CGAR displays high informative risk disclosure.
Our findings show that, in predicting high information content, different paths can lead to the same outcome. The present paper builds on set-theoretic methods to describe complex pathways that can lead a company to produce a CGAR with high information content regarding risks. Our findings include new complex ways to approach conditions for an increase in CGAR quality, which shows support for causal asymmetry. Several causal recipes are related to the outcome or response variable.
High information content about the sample firms' risks in their CGAR for , and are the three outcomes of interest in our study. We found a few differences in the composition of the condition recipes influencing information content for the three years. For a year in the recent economic crisis , the configurations leading to the outcome high information content of risks are quite different from the configurations for a pre-crisis year and a post-crisis year.
Most combinations of conditions for and are very similar. The number of required conditions for is generally lower compared to and Likewise, the presence of institutional investors and being audited by one of the Big Auditing Firms are two conditions included in every sufficiency combination found, regardless of the year.
In addition, all paths for the three years studied have in common an ownership dispersion of less than 5 different significant shareholders. On the other hand, the confirmation of all propositions dealing with the influence of the conditions on the outcome reveal to a greater or lesser extent that BoD characteristics independence, size, activity, duality, and gender diversity , independence of Audit Committee, ownership structure, and auditors quality are associated with high risk disclosure in the CGAR. Additionally, we found that the multiple configurations or solutions seem to be related to the fact that most companies in a given configuration belong to the same sector.
Furthermore, none of these conditions by itself leads to the outcome; each of them is included in a prime implicant or combination of conditions which produces the outcome. These identified factors do not determine high information content, but offer an assessment of what is expected to be important to obtain a CGAR with high information content about risk exposures. Results are robust to several forms of analysis. Among other limitations, our sample of study includes only listed companies. Expanding the sample with non-listed companies or adopting and international scope would enrich our findinds.
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Definition of Spanish Companies Act
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The relationship between corporate governance and financial crisis. Journal of Accounting, Finance and Management Strategy, 4 1 , Hsu, S. Critical tests of multiple theories of cultures' consequences. Journal of Travel Research, 52 6 , Institute of Chatered Accountants in England and Wales. Financial reporting of risk: Proposals for a statement of business risk. Reporting business risks: Meeting expectations. London, UK. International Accounting Standards Board Alternative paths to competitive advantage: A fuzzy-set analysis of the origins of large firms. Industry and Innovation, 16 6 , Jensen, M.
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Corporate governance effect on financial distress likelihood: Evidence from Spain.
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