And who was Charles Kellogg Field? He was born in Vermont, but grew up in the San Francisco Bay area. I suspect he was a charter member of the Zeta Psi chapter, since the chapter was founded in His pen names included Cheerio, Himself and Carolus Ager. He was known as Cheerio. He died in Some say he is best known for something he wrote in the aftermath of the earthquake.
All Rights Reserved. There are more than 1, posts on this blog. Use the search button to find the posts about your organization. If you would like to subscribe, please comment on the latest post with your e-mail address. You can also join the facebook group where links to the blogs are posted just after the entry is published. Chances are good you found this blog by searching for something about fraternities or sororities. The first sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta , was established at Toronto in By there were 42 fraternity and sorority chapters at the University of Toronto and of 23 at McGill University.
The arrival of the fraternity system in Asia accompanied the introduction of the American educational system in the Philippines. The first fraternities were established in the University of the Philippines.
The first Greek-letter organization and fraternity in Asia, the Upsilon Sigma Phi , was founded in Many early fraternities made reference to Christian principles or to a Supreme Being in general, as is characteristic of fraternal orders. Due to their exclusion from Christian fraternities in the United States, Jewish students began to establish their own fraternities in the period of and , with the first one being Zeta Beta Tau Although many of the religion-specific requirements for many fraternities and sororities have been relaxed or removed, there are some today that continue to rally around their faith as a focal point, such as Beta Upsilon Chi and Sigma Alpha Omega Numerous Greek organizations in the past have enacted formal and informal prohibitions on pledging individuals of different races and cultural backgrounds.
While these limitations have since been abolished by both the Interfraternity Conference and the National Pan-Hellenic Council , students of various ethnicities have come together to form a council of multicultural Greek organizations. The Multicultural Greek Council, officially formed in , is a coordinating body of 19 Greek organizations, including nine fraternities, and ten sororities with cultural affiliations.
Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities traditionally have been single-sex organizations, with fraternities consisting exclusively of men and sororities consisting exclusively of women. In the United States, fraternities and sororities have a statutory exemption from Title IX legislation prohibiting this type of gender exclusion within student groups, and organizations such as the Fraternity and Sorority Political Action Committee lobby to maintain it. Since the midth century a small number of fraternities, such as Alpha Theta and Lambda Lambda Lambda , have opted to become co-educational and admit female members; however, these generally represent a minority of Greek-letter organizations and no such fraternity is currently a member of the North American Interfraternity Conference, the largest international association of fraternities.
These organizations are similar to "social" fraternities and sororities, with the exception of being coed and non-residential. In , Chi Phi began allowing transgender members, or those identifying as male, to join the social fraternity. Importantly, all these variants have stemmed from a process of self-determination, without challenge by other Greeks. But in a bellwether case, in Harvard University changed its student conduct code to bar members of single-sex groups from leading campus groups, serving as captains of sports teams or participating in valuable academic fellowships.
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This clear and unprecedented attempt to eliminate the gender exclusivity that is typically associated with the fraternity and sorority culture is being contested vigorously in U. Federal Court by several affected fraternities and sororities, with the support of the broader Greek Life community. Individual chapters of fraternities and sororities are largely self-governed by their active student members; however, alumni members may retain legal ownership of the fraternity or sorority's property through an alumni chapter or alumni corporation.
All of a single fraternity or sorority's chapters are generally grouped together in a national or international organization that sets standards, regulates insignia and ritual, publishes a journal or magazine for all of the chapters of the organization, and has the power to grant and revoke charters to chapters. These federal structures are largely governed by alumni members of the fraternity, though with some input from the active student members. Most Greek letter organizations select potential members through a two-part process of vetting and probation, called rushing and pledging, respectively.
During rush recruitment , students attend designated social events, and sometimes formal interviews, hosted by the chapters of fraternities and sororities in which they have particular interest. Usually, after a potential new member has attended several such events, officers or current members meet privately to vote on whether or not to extend an invitation known as a "bid" to the prospective applicant.
Michigan Daily Digital Archives - May 12, (vol. 50, iss. ) - Image 6
Those applicants who receive a bid, and choose to accept it, are considered to have "pledged" the fraternity or sorority, thus beginning the pledge period new member period. Students participating in rush are known as "rushees" Potential New Members "PNMs" while students who have accepted a bid to a specific fraternity or sorority are known as "new members" or in some cases "pledges". A new member period may last anywhere from one weekend to several months. During this time, new members might participate in almost all aspects of the life of the fraternity or sorority, but most likely not be permitted to hold office in the organization.
At the conclusion of the new member period, a second vote of members may sometimes be taken, often, but not always, using a blackball system. New members who pass this second vote are invited to a formal and secret ritual of initiation into the organization, advancing them to full membership. Many Greek-letter organizations give preferential consideration for pledging to candidates whose parent or sibling was a member of the same fraternity or sorority. Such prospective candidates are known as "legacies".
Membership in more than one fraternity or sorority is almost always prohibited. Recently, some Greek-letter organizations have replaced the term "pledge" with that of "associate member" or "new member". Sigma Alpha Epsilon , in , abolished pledging altogether. Potential members are now immediately initiated into the fraternity upon accepting a bid. Unique among most campus organizations, members of social Greek letter organizations often live together in a large house generally privately owned by the fraternity itself, or by the fraternity's alumni association or a distinct part of the university dormitories.
A single undergraduate fraternity chapter may be composed of anywhere between 20 and more than students, though most have an between 35 and 45 members and pledges. Often fraternities and sorority houses called lodges or chapter houses are located on the same street or in close quarters within the same neighborhood, which may be colloquially known as "Greek row" or "frat row".
At some, often small, colleges, fraternities and sororities occupy a specific section of university-owned housing provided to them. Some fraternities and sororities are un-housed, with members providing for their own accommodations. In many of these cases, the fraternity or sorority own or rent a non-residential clubhouse to use for meetings and other activities. With a few exceptions, most fraternities and sororities are secret societies.
While the identity of members or officers is rarely concealed, fraternities and sororities initiate members following the pledge period through sometimes elaborate private rituals, frequently drawn or adopted from Masonic ritual practice or that of the Greek mysteries. At the conclusion of an initiation ritual, the organization's secret motto, secret purpose and secret identification signs, such as handshakes and passwords, are usually revealed to its new members.
Some fraternities also teach initiates an identity search device used to confirm fellow fraternity members. Julian Hawthorne , the son of Nathaniel Hawthorne , wrote in his posthumously published Memoirs  of his initiation into Delta Kappa Epsilon : .
I was initiated into a college secret society—a couple of hours of grotesque and good-humored rodomontade and horseplay, in which I cooperated as in a kind of pleasant nightmare, confident, even when branded with a red-hot iron or doused head-over heels in boiling oil,  that it would come out all right. The neophyte is effectively blindfolded during the proceedings, and at last, still sightless, I was led down flights of steps into a silent crypt, and helped into a coffin, where I was to stay until the Resurrection Thus it was that just as my father passed from this earth, I was lying in a coffin during my initiation into Delta Kappa Epsilon.
Meetings and rituals are sometimes conducted in what is known as a "chapter room" located inside the fraternity's house.
Entry into chapter rooms is often prohibited to all but the initiated. In one extreme case, the response of firefighters to a blaze signaled by an automated alarm at the Sigma Phi chapter house at the University of Wisconsin in was hampered in part because fraternity members refused to disclose the location of the hidden chapter room, where the conflagration had erupted, to emergency responders. The fraternity or sorority badge is an enduring symbol of membership in a Greek letter organization. Most fraternities also have assumed heraldic achievements. Members of fraternities and sororities address members of the same organization as "brother" in the case of fraternities or "sister" in the case of sororities.
There are a few exceptions to this general rule, as in the case of the fraternities Triangle , Acacia , and Seal and Serpent. There are approximately 9 million student and alumni members of fraternities and sororities in North America, or about 3 percent of the total population.
Roughly , of the current fraternity and sorority members are students who belong to an undergraduate chapter. A survey conducted at Princeton University showed that white and higher income Princeton students are much more likely than other Princeton students to be in fraternities and sororities. Since , 63 percent of members of the United States cabinet have been members of fraternities and sororities, and the current chief executive officers of five of the ten largest Fortune companies are members of fraternities and sororities.
In addition, 85 percent of all justices of the U. Supreme Court since have been members of fraternities. Bush , George H. Three Prime Ministers of Canada have been members of fraternities. In , about 25 percent of members of the U. House of Representatives and 40 percent of members of the U.
Senate are members of Greek-letter organizations. Other notable sorority women include Mariska Hargitay , who is an actress and founder of the Joyful Heart Foundation. Studies have found that university graduation rates are 20 percent higher among members of Greek-letter organizations than among non-members, and students who are members of fraternities and sororities typically have higher-than-average grade point averages. One reason for this is many chapters require their members to maintain a certain academic standard.
Each organization requires its members to maintain a minimum GPA in order to continue their membership. Greek members who maintain high GPA's are invited to join notable Greek honor societies. Gamma Sigma Alpha acknowledges Greek members who hold a 3. There is a high representation of former Greek life members among certain elites in the United States. Greek members "are more likely to be thriving in their well-being and engaged at work than college graduates who did not go Greek," according to a study done by Gallup and Purdue University. A Gallup survey of 30, university alumni found that persons who said they had been members of Greek-letter organizations while undergraduates reported having a greater sense of purpose, as well as better social and physical well-being, than those who had not.
Greek letter organizations have often been characterized as elitist or exclusionary associations, organized for the benefit of a largely white, upper-class membership base. Members of fraternities and sororities disproportionately come from certain socio-economic demographics, which perpetuates an unhealthy divisiveness within the student body based on ethnicity and income and a perpetuation of patterns of exclusivity and privilege.
New York Times columnist Frank Bruni questioned the existence of exclusive clubs on campuses that are meant to facilitate independence, writing: "[Colleges] should be cultivating the kind of sensibility that makes you a better citizen of a diverse and distressingly fractious society. The current editor of the magazine is Earl T.
Kappa Alpha Psi sponsors programs providing community service, social welfare and academic scholarship through the Kappa Alpha Psi Foundation and is a supporter of the United Negro College Fund and Habitat for Humanity. Kappa Alpha Psi celebrated its th anniversary on January 5, , is one of four predominantly African American collegiate fraternities to do so; the founders of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. Ezra D. Alexander, Dr.
Byron Kenneth Armstrong, Atty. Henry Tourner Asher, Dr.
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